Susceptibility Analysis: Hukou Form of and you can Hukou Area
As migrant spouses’ education increases from high school to some college or above, the increase in their likelihood of hukou locality intermarriage is similar between Shanghai and Shenzhen. When migrant spouses’ education changes from high school to some college or above, their odds of hukou locality intermarriage increase by 159% and 110% in Shanghai and Shenzhen, respectively, and the difference between Shanghai and Shenzhen is not statistically significant (Shanghai: ? = 0.95, exp(?) = 2.59,p < 0.001;> 0.05). In contrast, as migrant spouses’ education changes from less than high school to high school, their odds of intermarriage increase significantly in Shenzhen (? = 0.02 + 1.81 = 1.83,p < 0.001)> 0.05), and the difference is highly significant (dif.: ? = 1.81,p < 0.001).
So it relationships is particularly strong for the Shenzhen
Total, including supporting proof an excellent dyadic exchange, especially in Shenzhen, we as well as select supporting evidence for market replace, while the migrants are more likely to wed a neighbor hood mate (i.elizabeth., in order to create hukou intermarriage) as their education increases. The results suggest a high odds of hukou locality-degree change for non-college-educated migrants in Shenzhen compared to Shanghai, however, an identical likelihood of hukou area-knowledge replace in these one or two metropolitan areas having college-experienced migrants, and this helps Hypothesis step 3 the straight down probability of hukou area-degree change during the Shanghai, compared to the Saksa morsiamet Shenzhen, retains getting low-college-knowledgeable migrants yet not getting college-educated migrants.
Considering Model 5 out-of Dining table dos and you will Contour 2 , local spouses’ training isn’t of their diary-probability of hukou locality intermarriage, and therefore relationships cannot differ among them places
So far, i’ve noticed just intermarriage anywhere between residents and you will migrants, rather than distinguishing anywhere between a couple of hukou products. In our try, residents is actually predominantly metropolitan hukou holders whereas migrants mainly keep outlying hukou in both cities. Specifically, within the Shanghai, regarding the 85% of neighbors however, only about 20% out of migrants keeps urban hukou. In Shenzhen, every neighbors keep urban hukou, however, just about thirty-five% out-of migrants are metropolitan hukou proprietors. This new logical differences away from hukou type of anywhere between locals and you may migrants implies a chances of hukou variety of replace in this inter-hukou-locality ine if or not hukou style of impacts our overall performance.
Earliest, i check the new distribution from hukou style of certainly one of intermarriages out of hukou locality. Since revealed inside Shape A1, more 50 % of new couples in which several spouses differ inside hukou area means homogamy in terms of hukou particular. This really is in keeping with prior findings that most Chinese age hukou sort of (Li & Lu, 2008; Wang & He, 2014). A beneficial gender asymmetric development off hukou interong people associated with good migrant partner and you can a region spouse, just eleven% was rural-husband-urban-wife couples whereas 86% are urban-husband-urban-spouse lovers. Conversely, one of couples in which the spouse is an excellent Shanghai local citizen in addition to wife was good migrant, 45% was metropolitan-husband-rural-spouse partners. Quite simply, when female having Shanghai hukou marry migrants, they have a tendency so you’re able to get married metropolitan migrants, whereas guys which have Shanghai hukou exactly who wed migrant feminine tend to wed rural migrants. From inside the Shenzhen, so it gender pattern are reduced obvious: 26% from migrant-husband-local-spouse couples features a metropolitan spouse and you will a rural partner, whereas a dozen% out-of local-husband-migrant-wife people cover an urban spouse and you may a rural partner. These findings advise that inside Shanghai relationships markets, both hukou area and you may hukou variety of build intermarriage activities, however in Shenzhen hukou types of looks reduced extremely important. It then aids all of our findings about hukou burden getting stronger when you look at the Shanghai than in Shenzhen.
Second, we did a sensitivity analysis by excluding couples in which two spouses differ in both hukou locality and hukou type. In this way, intermarriages that cross hukou locality do not include any couples that might also engage in status exchange in terms of hukou type. The results (available upon request) are substantively the same. Hukou locality homogamy remains more pronounced in Shanghai than in Shenzhen (? Shenzhen*hukou homogamy =?0.42, p < 0.001).>shenzhen*(migrants: high school vs. less than high school) 1.11, p < 0.1).>